Cypress Door and Glass LLC has been installing and providing commercial glass service to Philadelphia, Southeastern PA, NJ, and DE for over ten years. We have a long list of references from satisfied business owners that continue to use our commercial glass repair service in the Philadelphia and Malvern areas. Our commercial glass repair customers know their commercial glass repair projects will be completed professionally, done right and on-time the first time. Many of our commercial glass repair jobs include property management glass service, we are competitive bidders and offer a complete solution. Property managers always have large amounts of commercial glass and commercial doors that they are responsible for maintaining. Cypress Door & Glass LLC’s Commercial Glass Service and repair can help eliminate the headaches of managing multiple sites. We specialize in servicing mixed use occupancy properties with different glass window needs. We offer commercial glass services, broken window repair and we even have a residential glass repair division. Property managers can rely on our knowledge and expertise in the commercial glass repair and commercial door repair industry. We provide consistent quality and competitive pricing on all of our commercial door, commercial glass repairs and commercial window installations. Recent clients include Apple, Dunkin Donuts, Gap Inc., Sunoco, and Joann’s Fabrics. Call Cypress Door & Glass LLC today, for Commercial Glass Service Philadelphia and all your door and commercial glass window needs.
We are a distributor for Tormax Automatic Doors
We also install products by many other brands including
Our Commercial Glass Emergency Service Team is available around the clock
- 24 – Hour Emergency Commercial Glass Service
- Emergency Glass Board-ups
- On the SpotCommercial Glass Repair and glass cutting
- Broken Commercial Glass Vandalism Repair
- Break-In Commercial Glass and Door Repair
Our Commercial Glass Service Includes:
- Glass Storefront Installations – from glass doors to complete storefront glass and aluminum framing we can handle any design
- Storefront Windows – Glass Replacement and Glass Installation
- Curtain Wall Glass Installation
- Commercial Door Installation and Repair – including glass, security door, sliding door , garage, roll-up, overhead, all types of doors.
- Commercial Door Service – We service all types of commercial doors. We even have 24 hour commercial service (Glass, Doors, and More)!
- Commercial Glass Service & Commercial Window Repairs
- Office-front and Glass Partitions
- Safety Glass
- Laminated Glass
- Tempered Glass
- Insulated (Thermo) Glass
- Plate Glass
- Herculite Glass
- Heat Strengthened glass (Partially Tempered Glass)
- Burglar Resistant Glass
- Bullet Resistant Glass
- Commercial Plate Glass
- Shower Enclosures
- Commercial Glass Railings
- Custom Mirrors
- Glass Canopies
- Glass Skylights
- Transparent – Two Way Mirror (micropane)
- Plexiglass and Lexan
- Polished Wire Glass
- Spandrel or Non-Vison Glass
- Coated Glass (Including Low-E)
- Tinted and Reflective Glass
- Reflective Films
- *We install NFRC certified Systems*
Commercial Glass Service Parts and Terms
Accelerated Aging: Lab produced aging, that in a small period of time results in normal aging affects including: sun-light, oxidation, H2, and temperature degradation.
Acetic Acid: Corrosive agent common in commercial glass service that affects steel, zinc, and many types of aluminum window and door panels.
Acrylics: A material sometimes used for glazing that is non-crystalline in structure and offers multiple benefits. Acrylics are useful in glass installation because of their shatter resistance, optical clarity, and how it stands up to environmental pressures.
Adhesion: Adhesion is a measure of the ability for an adhesive to bond to another surface, used in the clamping or sticking together of multiple surfaces.
Adhesive Failure: Adhesive failure indicated by the material’s failing (pulling loose) at the surface of the substrate. This is similar to scotch tape peeling off a plastic substrate.
Adhesive: Any substance that is capable of bonding other substances together by surface attachment. In an auto glass replacement context, it is a high-strength polyurethane material, unless otherwise specified.
Aerodynamics: The branch of physics that deals with the motion of a solid body through air and other gases.
Aging: The progressive change in the chemical and physical properties of a sealant or adhesive.
Air infiltration: The amount of air leaking in and out of a building through cracks in walls, windows and doors.
Air Quenching: Part of the process of tempering glass, when rapid cooling occurs by blowing air onto both surfaces uniformly and simultaneously.
Air Side: The upper surface of the glass; also referred to as score side.
Airbag: A passive restraint system that uses an explosive device to inflate a bag at a high rate of speed. The bag inflates with a gas and then quickly deflates when a vehicle occupant is thrown into it. It is mounted in the steering wheel on the driver’s side of the vehicle and in the dashboard on the passenger’s side. There are also airbags installed for side impact collisions. Some passenger-side airbags use the windshield to position the deploying bag.
Airspacer: Component placed at the perimeter of an insulating glass unit to separate the two lites of glass.
Alcohol: A broad class of organic compounds. In this context they are industrial solvents that include methanol (used in windshield washer fluid), denatured alcohol (used in glass cutting) and isopropyl alcohol (IPA, used as a cleaning solvent).
Allen Wrench: A six-sided wrench.
Amino Acid Base: A form of chemical cure method of silicone sealant.
Anneal: The controlled process for making glass stronger and less brittle in which the glass is heated and then cooled.
Annealed glass: Standard float glass.
Annealing: The controlled process of cooling glass after manufacturing to strengthen glass and make it less brittle.
Anodizing: A method of coating, coloring and finishing aluminum that both protects and beautifies the aluminum.
Antenna: A conductor that sends or receives electromagnetic waves, consisting commonly of a wire or set of wires. In some late-model vehicles, the radio antenna is incorporated into the windshield or back glass.
Anti-Lacerative Glass: Glass that has a resilient layer of polyvinyl butyral (PVB) added to the inner surface. It prevents passengers from coming into contact with broken glass edges on the inner surface in the event of a collision.
Architectural Scale: A ruler marked in scaled increments that is used to measure a scaled drawing.
Arch-top: One of several terms used for a variety of window units with one or more curved frame members, often used over another window or door opening. Also referred to as circle-heads, circle-tops and round-tops.
Argon: An inert, nontoxic gas used in insulating glass to reduce heat transfer.
Astragal: Center post between two swinging doors.
Auto glass repair: A process that removes air from a break in laminated glass and fills it with a curable, optically matched resin. Synonymous with windshield repair.
Awning: Window with sash swinging outward from bottom.
B pillar: A support for the roof located on either side of the vehicle, directly behind the front seat.
Backbedding: Material or compound used to seal the glass to a window sash.
Backer Rod: A compressible material, either open or closed cell, placed into voids between materials to insulate and allow a backing for the application sealant.
Back-Lite: Passenger car rear window.
Balance: Mechanical device (normally spring loaded) used in single- and double-hung windows as a means of counterbalancing the weight of the sash during opening and closing.
Baroque Pattern: Wire glass where the pattern is square and wires are parallel with the edges of the sheet.
Batch: A quantity of raw materials mixed in proper proportions and prepared for fusion into glass (also called frit).
Bay: A combination of window units that projects to the exterior. Usually features a large center unit with two flanking units at 30° or 45° angles to the wall.
Bead: A sealant or adhesive compound after application in a joint, irrespective of the method of application. A bead looks like a ribbon of adhesive rather than a round drop of adhesive.
Belt molding: A rubber molding between the inner and outer panels of a vehicle door through which the door glass is raised and lowered.
Bezel: A curved, tapered, decorative cover located behind the door latch or in the well of a door pull.
Building Information Modeling (BIM): A 3-D, object-oriented approach to computer-aided architectural design. Enables data for manufacturer’s details to be imported right into project design, and presents 3-D models of products in place in building. Also provides access and ability to add to detailed imagery and information to everyone involved in the building process and building operations after project completion.
Bit Brace: A hand tool that is used to drill holes.
Bite: Amount of adhesive overlap between the pinchweld and windshield.
Building-Integrated Photovoltaics (BIVP): A term used for products, such as commercial glazing, with solar-power collection cells built in.
Black Edge: If the backing of a mirror deteriorates, the silver turns black. This condition is known as black edge.
Block (setting): A small piece of neoprene or other suitable material used to position the glass in the frame or opening.
Body Fillers: Compounds used to build up and level low areas that cannot be brought back to their original contour by straightening.
Bond Strength: The force, per unit area, necessary to rupture a bond.
Bond: The attachment at an interface between substrate and adhesive or sealant.
Bottom rail: The bottom horizontal member of a window sash or door panel.
Bow: A combination window that projects to the exterior. Usually features four or more window units in a radial or bow formation.
Box bay: A combination of window units that projects to the exterior. Usually features a large center unit with two flanking units at 90¡ angles to the wall.
Breaking Stick: A stick or other material that is used to place under the score of glass or plastics that assists in the breaking of the material.
Breather tube: Tube placed through airspacer and seal of insulating glass that allows unit to accommodate changes in pressure between time and location of manufacture and time and location of installation, where it is sealed. Usually used to accommodate changes in altitude between plant and job site. Also referred to as capillary tube.
Brickmould: A type of external casing for windows and doors.
Bug: The ANSI insignia on laminated and tempered glass.
Bullet-Resistant Glass: Glass that consists of multiple layers of laminated glass. It is designed to resist penetration from medium- to super-powered small arms and high-powered rifles.
Bull’s Eye: Impact damage to laminated glass that is marked by a clean, separated cone in the outer layer of the glass.
Buttering: The application of sealant to the surface of substrate before placing another substrate in position.
Butyl Dam: Butyl Tape Kits have been used as positioning dams. Other terms for a butyl dam are: Sealant Dam, Tape Kit. See Butyl.
Butyl Rubber: A copolymer of isobutene and isoprene. As a sealant, it has low recovery and slow cure, but good tensile strength and elongation.
Butyl: An adhesive used in earlier model vehicles for glass retention. It is a petroleum product that requires no curing or hardening. Butyl is available in rolls of approximately 15 feet. Sometimes called Butyl Tape Kit or Tape Kit. It is available in various thicknesses and shapes.
C pillar: A support for the roof located on either side of the vehicle, directly behind the rear seat. The sides of the back glass can be bonded to the C pillar.
Caming: The metal used in the construction of decorative glass panels. Usually zinc or brass, it is also applied to single glass lites to create a decorative glass look.
Cap Bead: A finished bead applied at the top of an installation.
Capillary tube: Tube placed through airspacer and seal of insulating glass that allows unit to accommodate changes in pressure between time and location of manufacture and time and location of installation, where it is sealed. Usually used to accommodate changes in altitude between plant and job site. Also referred to as breather tube.
Capstock: A material co-extruded with PVC formulated to offer a specific color, finish and/or function, such as heat resistance.
Carbide: A hard binary compound of carbon and a more electropositive element. Used to coat and reinforce the tips of tools to extend the life of the tool.
Casement: Window with sash cranking outward, to the right or left.
Casing: Exposed moulding or profile around a window or door, on either the inside or outside, to cover the space between the window frame or door jamb and the wall.
Catalyst: The substance added in small quantities to promote a reaction, while remaining unchanged itself.
Cathedral: The name of the texture or a type of art glass.
Caulk: A sealant with a relatively low movement capability.
Caulking: A resilient mastic compound often having a silicone, bituminous, or rubber base; used to seal cracks, fill joints, prevent leakage, and/or provide waterproofing.
Cell Cast: A method of manufacturing plastics, where molten plastic is poured between two sheets of glass and allowed to cure.
Cellular PVC: Extruded polyvinyl chloride material used in window and door components and trim. Unlike rigid (or hollow) vinyl, it features a foam or cell-structure inside. It can often be nailed, sawn and fabricated like wood.
Cellulosic Composite: Generally, a material combining an organic material, such as wood fiber, extruded with a plastic.
Centrifugal Force: The force that tends to makes an object go outward from a center of rotation.
Channel Tape: A cork and rubber composition material used to secure door glass and to fill channels.
Channel: A piece of U-shaped metal lined with felt used to reduce glass breakage and noise, and to correct alignment of moveable glass parts.
Check rail: The bottom rail on the upper sash and the upper rail of the lower sash of a double-hung window unit, where the lock is mounted. Also referred to as a meeting rail.
Chemical cure: Curing by chemical reaction. This usually involves the cross-linking of a polymer.
China Markers: A wax marker used to mark glass.
Chip: Damage to the surface of the glass not associated with other types of damage. Impact damage to laminated glass that does not penetrate the outer lite. Although glass is missing from the impact point, there is no trapped air in the damage.
Circle Cutters: Cutters that have a vacuum base that attaches directly to the glass. The adjustable arm holds a ruler set to the radius of the desired circle.
Circle-top: One of several terms used for a variety of window units with one or more curved frame members, often used over another window or door opening. Also referred to as arch-tops, circle-heads, and round-tops.
Cladding: Material placed on the exterior of wood frame and sash components to provide ease of maintenance. Common cladding materials include vinyl and extruded or roll-formed aluminum.
Clerestory: A window in the upper part of a high-ceilinged room that admits light to the center of the room.
Clips: Devices which hold decorative chrome to the vehicle body, or hold moldings, and so forth.
Close-Cut or Partial-Cut Installation: An installation method that leaves most of the existing adhesive bead/bed adhered to the metal frame and adds a small fresh bead of adhesive into which to set the glass. Some vehicle manufacturers do not recommend this procedure.
Coated Glass: Glass with a chemical film applied to one surface. The film can provide enhanced performance characteristics such as privacy, solar or mirror effects.
Cohesion: The ability of a sealant or adhesive to hold itself together; the internal strength of an adhesive or sealant.
Cohesive Failure: Adhesive failure indicated by hardened material on both substrate surfaces. The material itself failed (the body of the adhesive or sealant pulled apart).
Combination Break: A break in a windshield involving more than two types of breaks.
Combination Door: A screen or storm door used in combination with a primary door. Storm windows also are referred to as combination windows.
Combustible: Any liquid that will ignite at or above 100°F, but below 200°F.
Compatibility: Refers to the reaction a sealant has on another sealant or on another material.
Composite: A term used for window or door components that consist of two or more materials, such as glass fibers or wood and plastic. The term also is used for windows and doors that combine two or more materials in the frame or sash construction, such as a product with a wood interior and a vinyl or aluminum exterior.
Compress: The act of pressing together or to force into a smaller space.
Compression Gasket: A system that uses a soft gasket on one side of the glass and a firm, dense gasket called a wedge on the other.
Compression Set: Occurs when a sealant is crushed and does not return to its original dimension when the load is removed.
Compression: Pressure exerted on a sealant in a joint.
Condensation: Water vapor from the air deposited on any cold surface that has a temperature below the dew point. Sometimes a problem on cold (and poorly insulated) window glass or framing that is exposed to humid indoor air.
Contaminant: A substance, liquid or solid, which is present in a break. Contaminants must be removed from a break before a repair can begin.
Continuous Cast Plastic: A method of manufacturing plastics, where molten plastic is forced through a machine, then cooled and dried on stainless steel rollers.
Coolant: A liquid used to cool and lubricate glass while it is being cut or ground with a tool to prevent hot spots or fracturing of the glass.
Corner Cleaner: Machine that removes the bead of excess material formed in welding vinyl window corners.
Corrosion: The chemical reaction of air, moisture, or corrosive materials on a surface; also called oxidation. The process of wearing away the surface of a solid.
Cosmetic Blemish: A defect in the appearance of a vehicle. Includes torn upholstery, scratched paint and resin spills.
Cosmetic Surface: A surface that is finished or decorated to improve its appearance. Includes such things as paint, glass and upholstery.
Cottage Double-Hung: A double-hung window in which the top sash is shorter than the bottom sash.
Cowl Panel: A decorative, porous cover mounted to the cowl that covers the lower edge of the windshield.
Cowl: A drain located above the firewall where the windshield wipers deposit rain water.
Crack: An extended crack in a windshield from both sides of an impact point. There are several different kinds of cracks: Short crack: A crack on the windshield of 6 inches (15.24 cm) or less. Long crack: A crack on the windshield of more than 6 inches (15.24 cm).Edge crack: Any crack on the windshield that extends to an edge. Floating crack: Any crack on the windshield that does not extend to an edge. Stress crack: Any crack extending from an edge without an impact point.
Crazing: A phenomena that occurs to plastic when it is exposed to either harsh weatherization, U.V. light or force bending beyond the recommended minimum radius.
Creep: The deformation over time of a body under constant load.
Condensation Resistance Factor (CRF): A rating of a window’s ability to resist condensation. The higher the CRF, the less likely condensation is to occur.
Cristallo: An extremely clear glass developed by Venetian glass-makers by adding manganese (as a decolorizer) to the batch.
Critical Path Method: A management technique that breaks complicated processes down to reveal the most direct route to solving or reaching a pre
Cross-Linked: Molecules that are joined side by side as well as end to end.
Crystal: Three-dimensional building blocks that make a substance internally rigid.
Cullet: Broken glass that helps a batch melt more easily.
Cure Time: The time required for a chemical or material to dry or set at a given temperature and humidity. Cure times vary with the type of material used and the thickness of the application.
Cure: The hardening of a liquid material or adhesive by means of a chemical reaction. A process of drying and hardening over a given period.
Curing Agent: A chemical which is added to effect a cure in a polymer.
Curing by chemical reaction: This usually involves the cross-linking of a polymer.
Cut-Running Pliers: Pliers designed for use parallel to the score. The upper jaw has two projections that taper outward from the center.
Cutting Jig: A device used to standardize the cutting of similar size and length materials.
Cutting Rake: The angle and shape of the tip of a cutting tool, such as a drill bit or a saw blade.
Cylinder Glass: Molten glass blown into a cylinder and cut apart, then reheated and flattened.
Cylinder: Subassemblies for a door lock containing a cylinder plug with keyway and a cylinder body with tumbler mechanisms.
Dade County: County in Florida, including Miami, that has set numerous standards and requirements for hurricane-resistant windows and doors.
Dam: A device having a two-fold purpose: 1. A dam cushions and separates the glass from the metal frame where the glass adheres. 2. A dam holds the liquid adhesive and prevents it from flowing into the interior of the vehicle.
Damage: A break in laminated glass. Same as break and crack.
Dauber: A disposable cotton applicator for applying primers and preps to the metal and glass bonding surfaces.
Decorative Glass: Art glass; cathedral, stained, or patterned glass.
De-lamination: The failure of the bond between layers, as when windshield glass separates from the laminate, or when paint peels from the substrate.
Demand Flow Technology (DFT): An approach to analyzing and optimizing production lines.
Desiccant: An extremely porous crystalline substance used to absorb moisture from within the sealed air space of an insulating glass unit.
Denatured Alcohol: Alcohol to which an unwholesome substance has been added to make it unfit for drinking. The denaturing substance does not affect the alcohol’s usefulness for other purposes.
Density: The mass per unit volume of a substance under conditions of pressure and temperature.
Design Pressure (DP): A measurement of the structural performance of a window or door. Usually specified as one-and-a-half times greater than necessary based on expected building, wind and weather conditions.
Diamond Cutters: Specially shaped diamond to score glass.
Digital Volt-Ohmmeter (DVOM): A high-impedance instrument used to test electronic systems.
Ding: A non-technical term often used by the public to refer to a stone damage to a windshield or laminated glass.
Divided lites: Separately framed pieces or panes of glass. A double-hung window, for instance, often has several lites divided by muntins in each sash. These designs are often referred to as six-over-six, eight-over-one, etc., to indicate the number of lites in each sash. Designs simulating the appearance of separately framed panes of glass are often referred to as SDLs or simulated divided lites. Designs using actual separate pieces of glass are sometimes referred to as TDLs or true divided lites.
Division Bar: A vertical run channel located between the door window and vent glass.
Door Panel: A decorative panel used to cover the interior panel of the doorframe.
Doorframe: A vehicle part containing an exterior and interior panel that houses the door window and the mechanism used to operate that window.
Dormer: An area that protrudes from the roof of a house, generally featuring one or more
Double Glazing: Use of two panes of glass in a window to increase energy efficiency and provide other performance benefits. May or may not refer to an insulating glass unit.
Double Seal Units: Insulating glass with two materials used to form the seal of the glass.
Double-Hung Window: Window featuring two operable sash that move vertically in the frame.
Double-Strength Glass: Glass between 0.115 and 0.133 inch thick.
Drag Coefficient: The mathematical expression of the retarding force exerted by air upon a body.
Drilling: The use of a drill to gain access to a tight break.
Drip Cap: Moulding placed on top of the header brickmould or casing of a window frame.
Drop-Jaw Glass Pliers: Pliers used for breaking glass. They have a flat upper jaw and humped lower jaw.
Dry Fit: Process in which a technician sets the glass in the vehicle glass opening before applying adhesive or primer. The process is used to position the glass and mark the position with alignment markings or tape.
Dry Glazing: A method of securing glass in a frame by use of a dry, preformed, resilient gasket without the use of a compound.
Durometer: A blunt probe used to penetrate sealants; measures the hardness from 0 to 100.
Edge Crack: Any crack on the windshield that that extends to an edge. See Crack.
Edge Effect: Heat transfer at the edge of an insulating glass unit due to the thermal properties of spacers and sealants.
Egress Window: Window designed to be large enough for a firefighter to climb in or a person to climb out of in an emergency. U.S. building codes require each bedroom of a home to have an emergency exit window, with minimum sizes specified.
Egress: A path or means of going out of a building or structure, exit.
Elasticity: The ability of a material to return to its original shape after removal of a load.
Elastomer: A rubbery material which returns to approximately its original dimensions in a short time after a relatively large amount of deformation.
Electro-Chromatic Mirror: An interior rearview mirror that senses the glare in oncoming light and automatically dims the vehicle’s high-beam headlights.
Electrochromic Glazing: Glass or other glazing material that can be switched from clear to opaque electronically.
Elongation: A property of urethane adhesive: An increase in length expressed numerically as a fraction or percentage of initial length.
Emery: A granular mineral substance used for grinding and polishing glass.
Encapsulated Glass: A type of auto glass fabrication. Pre-assembled parts that contain hardware: moldings, fasteners, clips, or gaskets. Glass with a decorative molding around all or part of the perimeter. The encapsulation can also act as a channel guide. The molding (encapsulation) is actually part of the glass and can be removed only by cutting it off the glass.
Expansive Cement: An adhesive used to anchor glass railings into a base.
Extensibility: The ability of a sealant to stretch under tensile load.
Extension jamb: A board or trim component that extends from the interior of the window frame to the interior wall. It is used to increase the depth of the jambs of a window to fit a wall of any given thickness.
Extruded Plastics: A method of manufacturing plastics where molten plastic is pulled through a machine called an extruder.
Extrusion Failure: The failure which occurs when a sealant is forced too far out of the joint.
Extrusion: The process, in which a heated material is forced through a die, used to produce aluminum, vinyl (PVC) and other profiles or components used in the production of windows and doors. Term also is used to refer to the profiles or lineals manufactured by this process and used to make window and door components.
Fanlight: A half-circle window over a door or window with radiating bars.
Fast Cure Urethane: A faster hardening adhesive. The term “fast” is relative to the surrounding temperature and humidity. Curing time is faster than for normal adhesives.
Fastener: An item that attaches one item to another such as a screw, bolt or rivet.
Fatigue Failure: The failure of a material due to rapid cyclic deformation.
Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards (FMVSS): A series of standards required of the automobile manufacturers by the Federal Government. All new vehicle models must meet these standards before they are allowed to be sold in the United States.
Fenestration: Originally, an architectural term for the arrangement of windows, doors and other glazed areas in a wall. Has evolved to become a standard industry term for windows, doors, skylights and other glazed building openings. From the Latin word fenestra, meaning window.
Fiber Paddle: A tool with a tapered end made of plastic or fiberglass. It is used to loosen the bond between and to install a windshield into a gasket. It is one of the most commonly-used tools in gasket installations because it does not scratch paint and glass. Also called a fiber stick, bone, spoon and slip stick.
Figured Glass: See Pattern Glass.
Filler Strip: A strip inserted into a rubber gasket after the glass is installed, forcing the gasket against the glass to form a seal and improve the grip. It is sometimes called locking a bead or spline.
Filler: Finely ground material added to a sealant or adhesive to change or improve certain properties.
Finger-Joint: A toothed joint used to combine two pieces of wood end-to-end.
Fire Windows: Fire endurance-rated glazing material.
Fire-Rated: A label given to a material after it has passed specific fire
Fixed Lite: Non-venting or non-operable window.
Fixed Panel: Non-operable door usually combined with operable door unit.
Flammable: A volatile liquid or gas which has a flash point of 100°F or 38°C. “Flammable” is synonymous with “inflammable.”
Flare-Jaw Pliers: Glass pliers that have identical upper and lower jaws, but which widen along their length.
Flash Point: Minimum temperature at which a liquid gives off a vapor in sufficient concentration to ignite when heated.
Flashing: A strip of material that diverts water away from a window, door or skylight.
Flexing: A method of gaining access to a tight break by flexing the glass back and forth, either with a tool or by hand.
Float Glass Process: A commercial method of manufacturing glass in which molten glass is fed into a float bath of molten tin.
Float glass: Glass produced by a process in which the ribbon is floated across a bath of molten tin. The vast majority of flat glass is now produced using this method. The terms “plate” glass and “sheet” glass refer to older manufacturing methods still in limited use.
Floating Crack: Any crack on the windshield that does not extend to an edge. See Crack.
Flowering: A flower-petal effect around the outer edge of a repair. This is caused by the laminate detaching from the outer layer of glass.
Flush door: Door produced using two skins or faces separated by a stile-and-rail frame construction at the perimeter. Flush doors may be produced with a hollow core or solid core.
Fogging: A deposit or film left on an interior surface of a sealed insulating glass unit due to extreme conditions or failed seals.
French door: Generally refers to a pair of hinged doors that open from the middle. Also incorporates wider stile-and-rail components around the glass than typical glazed doors.
Friction-weld: A process that uses high-speed vibrations to join materials together.
Frit: The painted band around the perimeter of auto glass parts.
Full Strip Installation: An installation method whereby the technician removes the existing bed/bead of adhesive from the vehicle frame. Approximately 1-2 mm of old adhesive remains. The technician applies new/fresh adhesive on top, then sets the glass into the fresh adhesive.
Fusion-weld: A term for a type of corner construction, used with vinyl and other types of windows and doors, in which a small amount of material on the ends of two pieces are melted or softened, then pushed together to form a single piece. This also is referred to simply as a welded corner.
Garnish moldings: The interior decorative moldings around the perimeter of glass parts.
Gasket: A seal, usually of rubber, that holds a piece of auto glass to the vehicle body. There are various sizes and shapes of glass-part gaskets, depending on vehicle design.
General Conditions: The main provisions or qualifications to be followed, usually standardized, set forth between two parties in a contract.
Glass Blowing: The art of shaping a mass of glass that has been softened by heat by blowing air into it through a tube.
Glazing Compounds: A soft dough-like material used for filling and sealing the space between a pane of glass and its surrounding frame.
Glazing Stop: A component of the sash or door panel that holds the glass in place.
Glazing: Glass (and other materials) in a window or door. Also, the act or process of installing glass in a frame.
Glider: A window with a movable sash that slides horizontally. Also referred to as a horizontal sliding window.
Glycerin: A lubricant used to preserve and maintain rubber.
Green Building: A movement in architectural and building circles aimed at creating structures that are occupant and environmentally friendly. Criteria such as sustainability, energy efficiency and healthfulness are considered.
Green Strength: A term used by some adhesive manufacturers to describe initial strength of an adhesive.
Grille: A term referring to window pane dividers or muntins. It may be a type of assembly fitted to the interior of the window or door unit that can be detached for cleaning. Also can be fitted inside the sealed insulating glass unit, when it also is referred to as a grid.
Grit: The amount of tiny abrasive material contained within a given area of an abrasive material.
Grommet: A ring or eyelet. In electricity, an insulated washer of rubber or plastic inserted in a hole in a metal part to prevent grounding of a wire passing through the hole.
Gun-Grade (gunnable sealant): Sealant that is meant to be applied with a caulking gun.
Half Moon: Damage to a windshield that has a half-circle separation around the impact point. It is similar to a bull’s eye.
Hand Seamer: A hand tool used to seam the edge of glass and plastic.
Hard-Coat Glass: A glass product that is coated during the manufacturing process at the molten glass stage. Also known as a pyrolytic coating, this type of coating offers a surface that is generally as durable as an ordinary glass surface, and therefore requires no special handling and does not need to be used in an insulating glass unit. The other type of glass coating is a sputter-coat, which is applied in a secondary process. Sometimes referred to as a soft-coat, these types of coatings generally require some additional care in handling and fabrication and must be used within an insulating glass unit.
Hazardous Materials: Materials deemed to be of danger or risk to humans, animals or the environment.
HAZCOM: Hazardous Communications, a document required by OSHA that contains a company’s policies and procedures and procedures for handling and disposing of hazardous materials.
Head: Main horizontal frame member at the top of a window or door.
Header: Horizontal framing member placed over the rough opening of a window or door to prevent the weight of a wall or roof from resting on the frame. Also known as a lintel.
Headliner: The fabric which lines the roof of a vehicle’s passenger compartment.
Heat Gain: The transfer of heat from outside to inside by means of conduction, convection and radiation through all surfaces of a house.
Heat Loss: The transfer of heat from inside to outside by means of conduction, convection, and radiation through all surfaces of a house.
Heat Strengthened Glass: Similar to tempered glass, it is made by heating annealed glass uniformly and then culling it more slowly than tempered glass.
Heated Urethane: A type of adhesive that is heated to a prescribed temperature before application. The heat “pre-cures” the adhesive for faster setting.
Hollow-Core Door: Flush door constructed with two skins or door faces separated by stiles and rails at the perimeter. Generally, a honeycomb-type support is used inside the door between the two faces.
Hopper: Window with sash that swings inward from the top.
Hone Angle: An important characteristic of a cutting wheel that determines the sharpness of the wheel.
Hook Tool: A tool designed for use in installing a glass part into a gasket. Sometimes known as a cotter pin puller.
Horizontal Slider: A window with a movable sash that slides horizontally. Also referred to as a gliding window.
Horizontal Tempering: The tempering process where the glass travels through the oven in a horizontal plain.
Hot Melt Butyl: An insulating glass edge sealant used during manufacturing.
Idler guide: Device used to secure moveable windows.
Idler Guides: Devices used to secure rollable windows.
IG Units: Common name for insulating glass units.
Impact Point: Actual location on the glass that was struck by an object—usually a stone—resulting in damage. Typically a small piece of glass is missing.
Impact: This is the most common break. It occurs when an object hits the windshield.
Impact-Resistant: Term used to describe window and door products that have passed established tests for resistance to windborne debris. Such products are typically used in coastal areas that are prone to hurricanes.
Infrared: Part of the light spectrum; infrared rays that cause heat.
Insulating glass (IG): Two or more lites of glass with a hermetically sealed airspace between the lites. The sealed space may contain air or be filled with an inert gas, such as argon.
Integrated sash: A sash unit in which the insulating glass spacer profiles are integrated into the sash profiles. Separate IG construction is eliminated as the two lites of glass are applied and sealed directly to the sash, creating one assembly.
Jalousie: Window made up of horizontally mounted glass louvers or slats that abutt each other tightly when closed and rotate outward when cranked open.
Jamb depth: Width of a window or door from the interior to the exterior of the frame.
Jamb: Main vertical members forming the sides of a window or door frame.
Jambliner: The track installed inside the jambs of a double-hung window, on which the window sash slide.
J-Channel: Installed or built-in to the side of a window or door, this channel is designed to accommodate the ends of siding pieces to provide a finished appearance.
Joint Design: The design of a void to be filled with sealants to prevent air or water leakage.
Joint: The opening between component parts.
L Squares: An “L” shaped instrument that can be made of wood, plastic, aluminum, or phenolic resin, and has two edges perpendicular to each other, used as a guide for the glass cutter when making 90° angle cuts to the edge of a sheet of glass.
Lacing Tool: Tool whose eyelet threads the locking strip while its heel presses the locking strip into the channel.
Laminate: Vinyl inner layer of laminated glass.
Laminated Glass: A type of safety glass that two or more sheets of glass with an inner layer of transparent plastic to which the glass adheres if broken. Used for enhanced safety and security, as well as sound reduction. Laminated glass is used mainly for windshields, but can now be found in door glass parts as well.
Lap Joint: A joint in which the component parts overlap so that the sealant or adhesive is placed into shear action.
Lap Shear Strength: The strength demonstrated by the diagonal pull of two substrates until adhesive failure. The name comes from the lap joint created by the test samples and the shear action used to pull the samples apart.
LEED: Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design.
LEED Rating System: A “green building” rating system established by the U.S. Green Building Council. Currently applicable to new commercial construction and major renovations, the program is being expanded to include residential construction as well.
Legs: Short cracks that emanate from a break.
Lehr: A long, tunnel-like oven used to control the rate at which glass cools from its molten state.
Liable: Being legally obligated or responsible.
Light Transmittance: The percentage of visible light able to pass through.
Linkage: A mechanism used to operate door latches and door locks.
Lintel: A structural component or beam above a window or door opening that supports the wall above. Also referred to as a header.
Lite: A term for a pane or finished piece of glass. In windows and doors, refers to separately framed panes of glass (as well as designs simulating the look of separately framed pieces of glass).
Load Distribution: The specific placement of a supported weight or mass in a given area.
Locator Tapes: Tapes used to align the glass to the vehicle body during a dry set of the glass. See Dry Set.
Locking Beads: A term for filler strips. See Splines.
Long Crack: A crack on the windshield of more than 6 inches (15.24 cm). See Crack.
Low-emissivity (Low-E) glass: Low emissivity glass; a type of reflective glass that is popular in residential and office applications. A coated glass product that reflects heat.
Masonry opening: Area in a masonry wall left open for windows or a door.
Mastic (broad interpretation): Any field molded sealant or adhesive. Includes materials which are gunned, poured or troweled into place.
Material Substitution Request: An official request in writing provided by a subcontractor or contractor, for the purpose of official notice or approval that an alternated material is requested.
Medium-Density Fiberboard (MDF): A wood-fiber composite used in a variety of window, door and millwork applications.
Model Energy Code (MEC): Established by Energy Policy Act of 1992 to serve as a baseline for state energy codes. Although referenced in some state codes, it has been succeeded by the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC).
Mechanical Window: A term for a product, usually vinyl, in which the corners are assembled using screws or other fastening mechanisms, as opposed to a welded corner construction. Also referred to as a mechanically fastened window.
Mirrors: Deposited layer of silver on one surface of glass.
Misco: Wire glass where the wire is a diamond pattern.
Mobile Unit: A vehicle, usually a van or light truck, properly equipped with repair and safety equipment and tools, driven to an auto glass repair customer’s home or place of business. Glass repairs are made from the vehicle.
Model Building Code: A resource of codes that have been written and adopted as the law or standard in a geographical area.
Modulus: The ratio of stress to strain.
Molding or Chrome Release Tool: Tool used to remove molding clips from a windshield or back lite.
Monomer: A material composed of single molecules. A building block in the manufacture of polymers.
Mortise Lock: A lock fitting a rectangular-shaped cavity in the edge of a door.
Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS): Required for all toxic or hazardous materials used by a company.
Mullion: A component used to structurally join two window or door units.
Multipoint Lock: A locking system operated with one handle; secures a window or door at two or more locking points.
Muntin: Profile or moulding, either vertical or horizontal, used to separate glass in a sash into multiple lites. Generally refers to components used to construct divided lite grids or grilles simulating a divided lite look.
Nailing Fin: An accessory component or integral extension of a window or patio door frame that generally overlaps the conventional stud construction and through which nails are driven to secure the frame in place.
Negligent: Habitually guilty of neglect, extremely careless or casual.
Neoprene: A synthetic rubber having physical properties closely resembling those of natural rubber but not requiring sulfur for vulcanization. Extremely good weather resistance (both heat and cold) with ultraviolet stability.
Obsidian: Glass made by natural forces, often found in volcanic areas where heat has acted upon sand, and sodium and calcium compounds, to produce glass.
OEM: Abbreviation for original equipment manufacturer.
Off-Set Pliers: Pliers used to trim glass in hard to reach places. The jaws contact the glass at right angles to its edge.
One-Part Sealants: Sealants that require no premixing.
One-Part Urethane: An adhesive used in auto glass replacement that has only one component.
One-Step Distributor: An industry term for a wholesale company which buys building products from a manufacturer and sells them to builders, contractors and homeowners is referred to as a one-step distributor. A wholesaler that buys building products from the manufacturer and sells them to lumberyards and home centers, which in turn sell to builders, contractors and homeowners, is referred to as a two-step distributor.
Opacifier: A material, either film or liquid, that is applied to the back of a piece of glass to act as a light shield.
Opalescent: Name of the texture of a type of art glass.
Opaque: Impenetrable by light.
Open Time: The time interval between the application of an adhesive and when it becomes no longer workable.
Open-Celled: As in “Open-celled foam.” Foam extrusions can have the body contain connecting open cells. This allows air to pass through the foam to promote adhesive cure.
Oriel: Type of bay window which protrudes from building, but does not touch the ground.
Oval Cutter: Cutters that allow glaziers to cut ovals of specific dimensions. Oval cutters can also cut circles.
Oxidation: Formation of an oxide; the deterioration of rubbery materials due to the action of oxygen or ozone.
Ozone: A reactive form of oxygen. A powerful oxidizing agent, it occurs naturally in the atmosphere.
Palladian: A large, arch-top window flanked by smaller windows on each side.
Panel: Component, usually wood, mounted within stile-and-rail members of doors; used to refer to the entire door.
Panning: In replacement window work, the outside aluminum trim that can extend around the perimeter of the window opening; used to cover up the old window material.
Pareto Principal: A management principle that breaks down complicated processes or tasks into the vital few and the trivial many.
Parting Stop: A narrow moulding, either integral or applied, that holds a sash or panel in position in a frame.
Passive Restraint System: A system of protection that requires no effort on the part of the occupants of a vehicle, i.e., self-retracting seat belts, airbags.
Pattern Cutters: Sometimes called rolled or rough rolled glass, patterned glass is one type of rolled glass having a pattern impressed on one or both sides. Used extensively for light control and decorative glazing.
Peel Test: A test of an adhesive or sealant using one rigid and one flexible substrate. The flexible material is folded back (usually 180°) and the substrates are peeled apart. Strength is measured in pounds per inch of width.
Permanent Set: Occurs when a sealant is stretched, released, and does not return to its original length, but remains longer.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE): The safety gear worn by an auto glass repair technician. It includes nitrile gloves, safety or ultraviolet glasses, dust and mist mask (dual strap), first aid kit, and any additional equipment required by company policy.
Poly-Isobutylene Tape (PIB Tape): Used to form the primary seal of a dual seal insulating glass unit.
Picture Window: Large, non-operating window. It is usually longer than it is wide to provide a panoramic view.
Pigment: A coloring substance or matter.
Pinchweld: A type of metal weld joint. In the auto glass industry, the pinchweld is the part of the vehicle frame where the glass adheres.
Pit: The impact point from which, typically, a small piece of glass is missing.
Pivot Window: A unit with a sash that swings open or shut by revolving on pivots at either side of the sash or at top and bottom.
Plasticizer: A material which softens a sealant or adhesive by solvent action.
Plate Glass: Flat glass produced by grinding and polishing to create parallel plane surfaces affording excellent vision. Although the term is still used commonly, most window glass is now produced using the float process. See Float Glass.
Pneumatic: An air-powered power tool.
Pocket Window: A unit designed for replacement applications; is installed into the existing window frame after removal of the sash, balance hardware and parting stops. Also called an insert window, these units allow existing interior and exterior trim to be maintained.
Polishing Lubricant: A lubricant use to aid in polishing glass and plastics.
Polycarbonate: A plastic material used for glazing.
Polymer: A compound consisting of long chain-like molecules. The building units in the chain are monomers.
Polysulfide Rubber: A synthetic polymer usually obtained from sodium polysulfide. Polysulfide rubbers make very good sealants.
Polysulfide Sealants: Sealants that adhere well to glass, aluminum, and spacer and corner materials.
Polysulfide: An adhesive used to bond auto glass to vehicles prior to the advent of urethane.
Polyvinyl Butyral (PVB): Plastic material used as the interlayer in the construction of some types of laminated glass.
Preformed Gaskets: Glazing gaskets manufactured to window openings, usually made of rubber or urethane.
Preformed Sealant: A sealant which is pre-shaped by the manufacturer. Example
Pre-Hanger: A company that buys doors, framing, hardware, glass lites and other components, and prepares (or pre-hangs) the unit for installation.
Prep: A cleaner or a product that enhances an adhesive; usually applied to the glass prior to the primer.
Pressure Sensitive Adhesive: Adhesive which retains tack after release of the solvent, so that it can be bonded by simple hand pressure.
Prime Window: A primary window, as opposed to a storm or combination unit added on.
Primer: An undercoat or chemical applied to a surface to improve the adhesion, durability, and appearance of a topcoat or the bond of an adhesive. A product (chemical) used to prepare metal bonding areas and ensure a strong bond between the glass part and the adhesive.
Primerless Urethane: A type of urethane adhesive that requires no primer on the glass surface. Metal primers may be necessary.
Pro Dealer: A term used for building product dealers and/or distributors that cater to professional customers such as home builders and remodeling contractors.
Production Cutters: Mechanical cutters.
Projected Window: A window in which the sash opens on hinges or pivots. Refers to casements, awnings and hoppers.
Pultrusion: The process used to produce fiberglass composite profiles or components for the production of windows and doors. Term also is used generally to refer to the composite profiles or lineals cut and processed to make window and door components.
Pump Gun: A device used for pumping sealants and adhesives.
PVB: See Polyvinyl Butyral.
Polyvinylchloride (PVC): An extruded material used for window and door framing.
Pyrolytic Glass: A glass product that is coated, usually to provide low-emissivity or solar-control benefits, during the manufacturing process at the molten glass stage. Commonly referred to as a hard coat, this type of coating offers a surface that is generally as durable as an ordinary glass surface, and therefore requires no special handling and does not need to be used in an insulating glass unit. The other type of glass coating is a sputter-coat, which is applied in a secondary process. Sometimes referred to as a soft-coat, these types of coatings generally require some additional care in handling and fabrication and must be used within an insulating glass unit.
Quarter glass: Backside windows in a vehicle.
Radiation: The transfer of heat in the form of electromagnetic waves from one separate surface to another. Low-E glass is designed to reduce this type of heat transfer by reflecting electromagnetic waves.
Rail: Horizontal member of the framework of a window sash or door.
Reaction Injection Molding (RIM): A molding process using reactive chemicals.
Reflective Glass: Window glass coated to reflect visible light and solar radiation striking the surface of the glass.
Regulator: A manually or power-operated device that rolls the vehicle’s windows up and down.
Release Agent: A liquid solvent used to soften adhesives or sealants.
Resilience: A measure of energy stored and recovered during a loading cycle. It is expressed in percentage.
Resin Laminating: A process used to laminate curved glass and other specialized, limited batch applications.
Resin: A solid organic material, generally not soluble in water, that has little or no tendency to crystallize. Resin is optically matched to auto glass and used to fill breaks and cracks. A term commonly used within the industry that refers to the raw materials used by PVC extruders to produce vinyl window profiles. The word is also used to describe a liquid material that is used in the production of laminated glass.
Retainer: An item that holds steady a panel to a frame.
Reveal Molding: Chrome or plastic molding which fits over and covers the edges of the windshield and back glass.
Rolled Glass: Manufactured by pouring glass from the furnace into a series of rollers, then shaped to the desired thickness, annealed and cut to size. There are two basic types, patterned glass and wired glass.
Roof Window: An operable unit similar to a skylight placed in the sloping surface of a roof.
Rough Opening: Framed opening in a wall into which a window or door unit is to be installed.
Round-Top: One of several terms used for a variety of window units with one or more curved frame members, often used over another window or door opening. Also referred to as arch-tops, circle-tops and circle-heads.
Rubber Blocks or Spacers: Small rubber blocks/spacers, used by some manufacturers, to separate the glass from the metal frame.
R-Value: Resistance to thermal transfer or heat flow. Higher R-value numbers indicate greater insulating value. R-value is frequently used by the insulation industry and is the reciprocal of U-factor, a value more generally used in the window industry.
Safety Glass: A general term used for a strengthened or reinforced glass that is less subject to breakage or splintering and less likely to cause injury if broken. Law requires glass in doors to be some type of safety glazing product, such as tempered or laminated glass.
Safety Glazing: See Tempered Glass.
Salvage Part: A part, removed from a vehicle being scrapped, that is intended to be used as a replacement part.
Sandblasting: Sand blown by compressed air for etching or decorating glass.
Sash Cord: Rope or chain in double-hung windows that attaches the sash to the counter balance.
Sash Lift: Protruding or recessed handle on the inside bottom rail of the lower sash on a double- or single-hung window.
Sash Stiffener: A reinforcement usually inserted into a sash profile prior to assembly; designed to increase the strength of the unit.
Sash Weights: Concealed cast-iron weights used to counterbalance the sash of older double-hung windows.
Sash: An assembly of stiles and rails (vertical and horizontal members) made into a frame for holding glass.
Sausage Packs: A type of packaging for adhesive materials. The material is packaged in an aluminum foil pack. When the material is forced out of the package, the foil is crushed, reducing the amount of disposable waste.
Score: The term used to describe a “cut” on the surface of a glass or mirror with a glass cutter.
Sealant: Any material used to seal joints or openings against the intrusion or passage of any foreign substance, such as water, gases, air or dirt.
Sealer: A surface coating generally applied to fill cracks, pores or voids in a surface.
Self-Cleaning Glass: Glass treated with a special coating. Currently, commercially available products feature a coating that uses the sun’s UV rays to break down organic dirt through what is called a photocatalytic effect. The coating also provides a hydrophilic effect, which reduces the surface tension of water to cause it to sheet down the surface easily and wash away dirt.
Setting Block: A small piece of neoprene or other suitable material that positions the glass in the frame or opening. An automotive part on which the glass rests in place.
Shaded Glass: Laminated glass in which a dark color has been added to the top section of the inner vinyl layer to improve driver visibility in glare. The color typically becomes lighter as the tint travels down the glass.
Shading Coefficient (SC): A measure of a window’s ability to transmit solar heat, relative to that ability for 1/8-inch clear glass. The lower a unit’s shading coefficient, the less solar heat it transmits, and the greater its shading ability. It is being phased out in favor of the solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC).
Shard: A sharp piece or fragment of glass.
Shear Test: A method of deforming a sealed or bonded joint by forcing the substrates to slide over each other. Shear strength is reported in units of force per unit area (psi).
Sheet Glass: A transparent, flat glass found in older windows, now largely replaced by float glass.
Shelf life: The amount of time resin stays fresh without being used. If the material exceeds its shelf life, the resin might become unstable and unusable.
Shore Hardness: The measure of firmness of a compound by means of a Durometer Hardness Gauge. (Range of 20-25 is about the firmness of an art gum eraser. Range of 90 is about the firmness of a rubber shoe heel.)
Short Crack: A crack on the windshield of 6 inches (15.24 cm) or less. See Crack.
Shrinkage: The percentage weight loss under specified conditions.
Side-Lite: Passenger car side windows.
Sidelites: Narrow fixed units mulled or joined to operating door units to give a more open appearance.
Silicone: A chemical used as a lubricant or as a sealant with a wide variety of usage.
Sill Pan: A product placed under a window or door during the installation process that is designed for water drainage.
Sill: The main horizontal member forming the bottom of the frame of a window or door.
Simulated Divided Lites (SDLs): A type of grille or grid design that creates the appearance of a number of smaller panes of glass separated by muntins, but actually uses larger lites of glass with the muntins placed between and/or on the surfaces of the glass layers.
Single Glazing: Use of a single lite of glass in a window; generally not as energy efficient as insulating glass or other forms of double glazing.
Single Seal Units: IG unit manufactured with only one sealant.
Single-Hung: A window resembling a double-hung or vertically sliding window, with a fixed, non-operating top sash.
Single-Strength Glass: Glass with thickness between 0.085 and 0.100 inch.
Skin: A single piece of material used as the face of a door.
Skinned Over: The appearance of an adhesive when it has started to cure.
Slab: A term for a complete door panel that has not been prepared for installation into a frame.
Smart Window: Generic term, sometimes used for windows offering high energy efficiency or windows featuring switchable glass to control solar gain.
Soft-Coat Glass: A glass product that is coated in a secondary process known as sputter-coating, usually to offer low-emissivity or solar-control benefits. The term refers to the fact that these types of coatings generally require some additional care in handling and fabrication and must be used within an insulating glass unit. A hard-coat or pyrolytic glass is coated during the manufacturing process at the molten glass stage. This type of coating offers a surface that is generally as durable as an ordinary glass surface, and therefore requires no special handling and does not need to be used in an insulating glass unit.
Solar glass: Glass that either reflects or absorbs the ultraviolet and infrared rays from the sun.
Solar Heat Gain Coefficient (SHGC): A rating, which is now generally replacing shading coefficient, measuring a window’s ability to transmit solar heat. It measures both the solar radiation which is directly transmitted, as well as the solar radiation absorbed by the glass and subsequently transmitted. The lower a unit’s solar heat gain coefficient, the less solar heat it transmits, and the greater its shading ability. It is approximately equal to the shading coefficient divided by 1.15. It is expressed as a number without units between 0 and 1.
Solar-Control Glass: Glass produced with a coating or tint that absorbs or reflects solar energy, thereby reducing solar gain.
Solid-Core Door: Flush door produced with a solid material placed within the door skins.
Solvent: A liquid in which another substance can be dissolved.
Sound Transmission Class (STC): A rating measuring a window’s acoustic properties or its ability to reduce sound transmission. An STC rating is determined by measuring the sound transmission over a selected range of sound frequencies. The higher the number, the less sound transmitted.
Spacers, Flat: Small blocks of composition, neoprene, etc., placed on each side of lites to center the lites in the channel and maintain uniform width of sealant beads. They prevent excessive sealant distortion.
Spandrel: Opaque glazing material, often used for non-visionary areas between floors of a building.
Suspended Particle Device (SPD): A type of switchable glazing that typically uses laminated glass construction with the interlayer material featuring “suspended particles” that align when the glass unit is charged to provide a clear view and scatter when there is no charge, changing the glazing to translucent.
Spectrally Selective Glass: A coated or tinted glazing with optical properties that are transparent to some wavelengths of energy and reflective to others. Typically, spectrally selective coatings are designed to allow high levels of visible light or daylight into a building and reflect short-wave and long-wave infrared radiation.
Splayed Window: Window unit set at an angle in a wall.
Splines: A term used to denote filler strips.
Sputter-Coating: A secondary manufacturing process in which a thin layer of materials, usually designed to offer low-emissivity or solar-control benefits, is applied to glass. Sputter-coatings are commonly referred to as soft-coats, as they generally require some additional care in handling and fabrication and must be used within an insulating glass unit. A hard-coat or pyrolytic glass is coated during the manufacturing process at the molten glass stage. This type of coating offers a surface that is generally as durable as an ordinary glass surface, and therefore requires no special handling and does not need to be used in an insulating glass unit.
Stained: See Decorative Glass.
Star Break: Damage to a windshield marked by various-sized cracks radiating from the central impact point.
Static Mixer: A tube-like nozzle with a uniquely shaped insert that mixes two adhesive component materials together before the adhesive is dispensed.
Stile: The main vertical frame members of a sash or door.
Stile-and-rail door: Traditional type of wood door constructed with vertical stiles and rails with openings filled with raised wood panels or glass.
Stoce: Unit of glass sheets that is transported and stored without benefit of a wood crate.
Stone Break: A break on the outer layer of a laminated windshield. Typical stone breaks are star breaks, bullseyes or combination breaks. Non-technical term for damage on laminated glass.
Stool: Interior trim piece sometimes used to extend a window sill and act as a narrow shelf.
Stop: A moulding used to hold, position or separate window or door parts. Also, the moulding or component on the inside of a window frame against which the window sash rests or closes. Also called a bead, side stop, window stop and parting stop.
Straightedge: A piece of material with a straight edge for testing straight lines and surfaces or drawing straight lines.
Straight-Jaw Glass Pliers: Glass pliers that have identical upper and lower jaws.
Stress Cracks: Cracks resulting from unusual forces acting on the glass body.
Substrate: A hard surface, such as glass or metal, to which a sealant or adhesive is bonded. It is used to test adhesive product strengths.
Super Window: A generic term for a window with a very low U-value. Typically, it incorporates multiple glazings, low-E coatings, gas fills and an insulating spacer.
Supplementary Conditions: Provisions or conditions of a contract that are not standardized or that are special in relation to a particular contract.
Tack, Tackiness: The stickiness of the surface of a sealant or adhesive.
Tape Glazing: Installing glass or products with butyl tape.
Tapping Ball: An added feature to a wheel cutter that is used to weaken the glass on the underside of the score line prior to breaking.
Tear Strength: The load required to tear apart a sealant specimen.
Tempered glass: A strong break-resistant type of safety glass that, if broken, shatters into small granular pieces. Glass heat-treated to withstand greater than normal forces on its surface.
Tempering: Strengthening glass with heat.
Tenon: A rectangular projection cut out of a piece of wood for insertion into a mortise.
Tensile Strength: Resistance of a material to a tensile force (a stretch). The cohesive strength of a material, expressed in psi.
Tension: The act of straining or stretching.
Thermal Break: A thermally insulating or low-conductance material used between interior and exterior aluminum (or other conductive materials) window and door components.
Thermal Movement: Movement and changes in a structure caused by temperature changes.
Thermal Stress: As glass heats, it expands. The center portion of a lite gets hotter and expands at a greater rate than the edges. When this occurs it strains the edges, this is called thermal stress.
Thixotropic: Non-sagging. A material which maintains its shape unless agitated. A thixotropic sealant can be placed vertically in a joint and will maintain its shape without sagging during the curing process.
Tilt window: A single- or double-hung window whose operable sash can be tilted into a room to allow cleaning of the exterior surface on the inside.
Tin Side: Also called the non-air side, the surface of glass facing the molten tin within a float glass furnace.
Tinted Glass: Glass to which a small amount of color has been added consistently throughout the glass batch. The tinting reduces glare and absorbs heat.
Tooling: The pressing of a compound in and against the side of a joint to form good adhesion; also dressing of a joint’s surface compound for good appearance.
Toxic: Poisonous or dangerous to humans if swallowed or inhaled, or by contact, possibly resulting in eye or skin irritation.
Toxicity: The level or poisonous or toxic effect of a material.
Translucent: Permitting light to come through but diffusing it so that objects on the other side appear vague, distorted or imperfect.
Transom: Window used over the top of a door or window, primarily for additional light and aesthetic value.
Transparent: Permitting light to come through without distortions so that objects on the other side can be seen clearly.
Trim Ring: Ring of molded plastic or bowed metal which covers the headliner and secures the sunroof to a vehicle.
Triple glazing: Use of three panes of glass or plastic with two airspaces between. Generally refers to a sealed insulating unit.
True divided lites (TDLs): Traditional window construction incorporating smaller panes of glass actually separated by muntins, rather than simulating such an appearance with larger lites of glass and a muntin grid or grille placed between or on the surfaces of the glass layers.
Turret Cutter: A cutter head with more than one cutting wheel.
Twist: A crack which occurs when the windshield is twisted, either by flexing in the vehicle frame or because of improper mounting. It can be helped along if the windshield has a nick in the edge.
Two-Part Adhesive/Urethane: A type of adhesive that has two component parts: Hardener and resin. In auto glass adhesives, there are two-part urethanes and two-part adhesives. Although they are different chemically, they do have similar performance characteristics.
Two-Step Distributor: An industry term for a wholesale company that buys building products from the manufacturer and sells them to lumberyards and home centers, which in turn sell to builders, contractors and homeowners. A wholesaler that buys building products from a manufacturer and sells them to builders, contractors and homeowners is referred to as a one-step distributor.
U-Value: See U-Factor.
U-Channel Molding: A molding that allows water to be channeled up and over the vehicle instead of around the A pillar.
U-Factor: Rate of heat flow-value through a building component, from room air to outside air. Also referred to as U-value. The lower the U-factor, the better the insulating value. U-factor, a rating more generally used in the window industry, is the reciprocal of R-value, a rating commonly used in the insulation industry.
Ultimate Elongation: Elongation at failure.
Ultraviolet light (UV): Invisible rays of solar radiation at the short-wavelength violet end of the spectrum. Ultraviolet rays can cause fading of paint finishes, carpets and fabrics, as well as deterioration of some materials.
Unibody Construction: A type of automobile construction. The strength of unibody construction does not lie only in the structural frame but rather in the strength of the whole.
Uniform Bead: A consistent width and appearance of a substance (adhesive) applied to a surface.
Unleaded Frit: A painted band around the perimeter of the glass applied with unleaded paint. It requires special preparation before bonding.
Urethane Breakdown: Results when urethane is exposed to ultra-violet light. Urethane breakdown appears as a chalky black powder on the surface of the hardened adhesive.
Urethane: A family of polymers ranging from rubbery to brittle. Usually formed by the reaction of a diisocyanate with a hydroxyl; also called polyurethane.
Vacuum Cup: A tool used for picking up glass.
Vacuum Deposition: A process in which glass is placed in a vacuum chamber, electric energy is added, and a magnetic reaction takes place that causes the metal atoms to strike the surface of the glass at high speeds. The atoms coat the surface of the glass uniformly.
V-Bead: Sealant or adhesive compound applied in a triangular shape to a surface.
Vertical run guide: A weatherstrip or channel that steers the door glass in the frame when the glass is raised or lowered.
Vertical Tempering: When the glass is supported by tongs as it moves vertically through a tempering furnace.
VIN Plate: A permanently installed plate, displaying the vehicle identification number, which is viewable through the windshield from outside the vehicle.
Vinyl: Generic term for polyvinylchloride or PVC, an extruded material used for window and door framing.
Viscosity: The thickness of a liquid material. A measure of the flow properties of a liquid or paste. Example: Honey is more viscous than water. Water, the standard of comparison, has a viscosity of 1⁄100 of a poise. Viscosity is tested by forcing the material through a determined hole and measuring the time it takes to flow.
Vulcanization: A process in which rubber is treated with chemicals to harden and strengthen it.
Warm-edge: A type of insulating glass construction using an airspacer offering lower thermal conductance than traditional aluminum spacer. Warm-edge IG units typically offer higher resistance to condensation and an incremental improvement in window energy performance.
Weatherometer: An environmental chamber in which specimens are subjected to water spray and ultraviolet light.
Weatherstripping: A material or device used to seal the openings, gaps or cracks of venting window and door units to prevent water and air infiltration. An item made of rubber or foam that insulates one space from another.
Wedge Glazing: Interior, flexible, continuous, pressure fit gasket that insures a high compression seal between the glass and aluminum, while applying pressure and seal to the outside architectural glazing tape.
Weep Hole: A small opening in a window or sill member through which water may drain to the building exterior.
Weld: A term used for a type of corner construction, used with vinyl and other types of windows and doors, in which a small amount of material at the two pieces are melted or softened, then pushed together to form a single piece. This also is referred to commonly as a fusion-weld.
Wet Glazing: A method of sealing glass in a frame by use of sealants rather than dry-glazing gaskets.
Wheel Cutter: The most common type of hand glass cutter.
Wind Load: Force exerted by winds on building panels and complete structures; may be inward (positive) or outward (negative).
Windshield Repair: The act of repairing a break in a windshield, or other laminated auto glass part, rather than replacing it. Windshield repair is a permanent process that removes the air from the break and fills it with a curable, optically matched resin. Same as auto glass repair.
Wired Glass: Made by feeding a welded wire net of a particular design into the molten glass just before it enters the roller. The wire holds the lite (or pane) in the sash in case it shatters.
Wiring Harness: A number of wires bundled together, with a common connector, to provide electrical power to various devices.